Рынки во времена экономики закрытых дверей. Обзор на 18 марта 2020
События последних дней настолько быстро сменяют друг друга, что, делая акцент на одном, понимаешь, как быстро тексты и данные устаревают, и заострять внимание надо на уже другом. Естественно, фоном остается информация о распространении вируса, новых данных о количестве инфицированных, очередных мерах стран по ограничению контактов на личном и международном уровнях, снижающих активность в сфере услуг и промсекторе. Надежды инвесторов на активные шаги центральных банков «осыпаются прахом» – совещания Банка Англии (снизившего ставку на 50 б.п.) и ЕЦБ прошли, как будто их и не было. Надежды на то, что ФРС США поставит точку, объявив о супермерах, также не оправдались – с начала марта ФРС уже дважды снижала ставку (суммарно на 150 б.п.), доведя ее до 0,00–0,25%, т.е. до уровня конца 2015 г. В реальном секторе закрываются кафе, рестораны, моллы, и даже приостанавливается авиасообщение – потери экономики требуют мер бюджетной и фискальной поддержки, и они уже следуют. Однако они не способны в одночасье найти решение, как удержать экономику закрытых дверей на плаву, и тем более развернуть финансовые рынки.
Цены казначейских облигаций – признанной тихой гавани для инвесторов в трудные времена, цены на золото, палладий, другие драгметаллы, считающиеся альтернативой доллару во время кризисов, рухнули. Доходность 10Y UST, достигнув 9 марта минимума в 0,31%, поднялась до 1,19% (т.е. цена упала). Цены на золото упали с $1680 до $1467 за унцию (нефть уже даже не в счет – там своя игра, осложняемая общими ожиданиями в отношении темпов роста экономики).
Причина – происходящее на денежном рынке и рынке РЕПО США. После того как в сентябре прошлого года банковская система США пережила шок в результате резкого падения ликвидности (ставки межбанка достигали 10%), ФРС заметно увеличила размер собственных операций на рынке РЕПО, заявив об увеличении объема операций на $60 млрд ежемесячно (тогда некоторые поспешили назвать данное решение началом нового количественного смягчения – QE; однако ФРС парировала данные высказывания тем, что намерена выкупать лишь короткие активы). После этого ставки на межбанке снизились с 2,2–2,5 до 1,6%. Сейчас эта ставка упала до 0,26%. В марте ФРС заявила о расширении операций РЕПО на $1,5 трлн, однако, как ни странно, банковской системе это не помогло: первичные дилеры, выкупая казначейские облигации, формируют на балансе высококачественное обеспечение, однако ФРС, выкупая залог в увеличенном объеме, лишает банки достаточного объема закладных, а значит, ликвидности.
В итоге банки оказались вынуждены продавать финансовые активы – казначейские облигации, золото, акции, облигации на развивающихся рынках. Обеспеченные и необеспеченные инструменты, валютные свопы – все сегменты рынка демонстрируют признаки высокого стресса. Распродажи на фондовых рынках привели к глобальному маржин-call. Отражая уровень стресса в банковской системе, LIBOR-OIS спред является одним из лучших индикаторов этого состояния. Находясь в среднем около 25 б.п. с 2009 г., он взлетел сейчас до 78 б.п. Спред расширялся периодически – в 2011 г. на волне бюджетного и долгового кризиса в ряде стран еврозоны, в 2017–18 гг. в связи с репатриацией капиталов в США после налоговых инициатив президента Трампа и ужесточения политики ФРС. Однако сейчас он достиг максимальных значений с мая 2009 г.
Поэтому логично ожидать, что, приняв уже ряд мер для поддержки кредитного и межбанковского рынка, ФРС придется пойти на большее. Возможно, уже сегодня вечером по итогам планового совещания ФРС заявит о запуске программ TARP для прямых вливаний ликвидности в компании нефинансового сектора – о том, что инвесторы и экономисты называли в период кризиса 2008 г. «деньгами, разбрасываемыми с вертолета». Падение таких спредов как LIBOR-OIS и снижение доходности казначейских облигаций будет лучшим показателем стабилизации рынков.
Александр Овчинников, управляющий фондом ARGO SP и партнер Movchan’s Group
Last updated: 13.05.2022
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