Как навести порядок в подорванной банковской системе России
«Материал впервые был опубликован на сайте ИноСМИ.»
Современный финансовый сектор появился в России в 1990-е годы на развалинах советской банковской системы. Банки, попавшие под контроль олигархов, сосредоточились на накоплении заемных средств, чтобы финансировать покупку приватизированных предприятий акционерами. Банки получали прибыль в результате весьма сомнительной деятельности, в том числе посредством отмывания денег и уклонения от уплаты налогов. Многие из них потерпели крах к концу тысячелетия, однако большинство выживших банков не перестроились и не стали законными организациями, приносящими прибыль. Банкиры рассчитывали на то, что российский экономический рост, подпитываемый увеличением нефтяных цен, покроет скрываемые убытки.
Финансовый кризис 2008 года убил эти надежды. Казалось бы, после пяти лет экономической стагнации вполне логично рассчитывать на консолидацию разрозненного банковского сектора. Но слияния и приобретения происходят редко. В основном это вызвано тем, что Банк России создал такие условия, в которых подобные операции находятся под запретом, а выкачивание активов стало намного прибыльнее.
В такой атмосфере банки выживают за счет того, что ищут способы обойти закон стороной. Они выдают кредиты с поддельным обеспечением, завышают стоимость активов и преувеличивают официальную сумму капитала за счет структурированных сделок с дочерними компаниями. В страну вернулись отмывание денег и операции по обналичке. За последние 15 лет более 80% банков опустошили вклады своих клиентов за счет рискованных сделок и офшорных переводов на персональные счета акционеров.
Как это ни парадоксально, несмотря на драконовские меры регулирования, Центробанк слеп в вопросах надзора. Банк России пока не предсказал ни единого краха и постоянно снимает с себя любую ответственность. По поводу банка «Открытие» глава Центробанка Эльвира Набиуллина сказала, что эта организация завысила цены российских государственных облигаций в своей отчетности. Это возмутительно, что такие неверные представления не привлекли к себе внимание аудиторов из Центробанка, поскольку цены на облигации общеизвестны. Однако Банк России отказывается разбираться со своими аудиторами.
В такой обстановке банки выживают за счет поисков путей в обход закона.
Отрегулировать российский банковский сектор не в состоянии даже рыночные механизмы. Созданная Центробанком система, гарантирующая полную компенсацию вкладов на сумму до 25 тысяч долларов, лишила рынок важнейшего регулирующего механизма, каким является инвестиционный риск.
Центральный банк позволил российским банкам не выполнять свою главную функцию: играть роль эффективных посредников на рынках капитала. Теперь основная законная деятельность этих институтов сводится к тому, что они перенаправляют средства с депозитов вкладчиков на инвестиции в российские корпоративные и суверенные облигации.
Поскольку приток денег ведет к повышению рыночных цен, банки занимаются перекупкой бондов у Центробанка по несколько раз, используя значительные суммы заемных средств для увеличения прибыли. Цены поднимаются еще выше, из-за чего рынок становится непривлекательным для посторонних инвесторов.
Банковской системе нужен надзорный орган, независимый от Центробанка. Банкам, обслуживающим мелкую клиентуру, надо запретить вкладывать деньги в неликвидные активы, а рынок ликвидных ценных бумаг необходимо спасать от инвесторов. Небанковские кредитные организации и рынок кредитования способны помочь рынку отличить нормальных кредиторов от торгово-операционных компаний, дабы снизить риск проводимых транзакций. Чтобы вернуть на рынок элемент риска, страхование вкладов не должно покрывать всю сумму депозитов. Его должны финансировать сами вкладчики за счет страховых взносов.
Без таких мер российский банковский сектор останется банкротом, который лишь способствует обогащению людей, знающих, как можно пользоваться этой системой к собственной выгоде.
© РИА Новости, Владимир Астапкович
Last updated: 13.05.2022
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9. Data processing