Почему Goldman Sachs – это плохая инвестиция?
В кризис 2008 года среди пострадавших были страховщик AIG, спасенный за 150 млрд, инвестбанки и рейтинговые агентства. Акции рейтинговых агентств с тех пор улетели в космос, AIG – не восстановились, а Goldman у меня в этом кейсе – промежуточный вариант: они подросли, но за 10 лет с нижнего пика сделали около 100% и проиграли S&P, который утроился.
Почему решение продавать – правильное? Как минимум, есть четыре причины:
1. Банки – это в принципе не очень хороший сектор: его все больше регулируют, и его бизнес отнимают нерегулируемые фонды.
2. Goldman выдающихся результатов, как я сказала выше, тоже не показал. Добавлю только, что дивиденды он еще и сокращал, причем сильно!
3. Инвестбанки в кризис точно много не заработают, даже с учетом правильных ставок при proprietary trading, ведь выручка от размещений и консультирования упадет сильно.
4. Акции Goldman упали в этот кризис на 30% – это не так уж много в данной ситуации.
Аргумент в пользу решения держать – только низкий текущий P/E, но это ненадолго: скоро Е приблизится к нулю или уйдет в отрицательную зону. Уже в 1Q 2020 года чистая прибыль была почти вдвое меньше, чем в среднем за квартал в прошлом году, хотя кризис в полной мере разразился только в марте.
Так что для меня загадка, не почему Баффет продал, а почему купил. Ведь давным-давно, в конце 1980-х, Баффет купил префы инвестбанка Solomon Brothers. Он мог сильно попасть с ними, поскольку банку начал угрожать отзыв лицензии за серьезные прегрешения. Баффету пришлось стать председателем совета директоров и в этом качестве удалось спасти Solomon, поскольку репутация председателя была незапятнанной. Как пишет один из его биографов, он выступал перед конгрессом в манере “простака из провинции, который никогда не видел юриста»,и это всем понравилось. Ему поверили, что он выжжет каленым железом нечестные практики в Goldman. После этого Баффет сказал, что никогда больше не будет инвестировать в инвестбанки. Он сам признал их плохим бизнесом: если он понижал бонусы, люди уходили к конкурентам, то есть издержки были неснижаемыми.
В кризис 2008 года к Баффету приползли многие банки. Почитав отчетность Lehman, он тут же отказал, позже сообщив одному из журналистов, что причиной отказа было то, что у него возникло слишком много вопросов к отчетности: когда их много, лучше их вообще не задавать. (Блестящая, кстати, мысль!). Goldman он деньги дал, но в форме convertible preferred shares (конвертируемых привелегированных акций), причем convertible по желанию инвестора, а не банка. Довольно быстро, уже в 2011 году, эти акции были погашены банком, так как купон по ним составлял 10%, что стало высокой ставкой в условиях количественного смягчения, когда риски уже отступили на задний план. Через некоторое время Баффет купил акции Goldman на оставшиеся у него варранты, дававшие право купить их по 115 долларов, тогда как они стоили на рынке 160. Потом позицию он закрыл, но в 2018 году открыл снова. (Текущая цена около 175.)
Мораль, кстати, есть. Goldman, безусловно, самый умный и лучший инвестбанк. Не в любой слабой с точки зрения потенциала портфельных инвестиций отрасли покупка лучшей компании – спасение. Некоторые отрасли стоит обходить целиком. Такие как банки, например.
Елена Чиркова, управляющая фондом GEIST
Last updated: 13.05.2022
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