Особенности Великобритании. Часть 2. ИСТОРИЯ
- После 1945 года основная масса промышленности была национализирована лейбористским правительством. До 1960 года последствия войны давали Британии преимущество и экономика росла активно.
- После 1960 года неэффективность национализированных индустрий стала сказываться – до 1973 года скорость роста была 2.9%, сильно хуже чем у Франции, ФРГ, Италии. Доля индустриального производства Британии в мире до войны была около 10% (в 1913 году – 14%, в 1870 – 23%). К 1973 году она сократилась до 5%.
- В 1973 году цены на нефть выросли в 4 раза, британский рынок ценных бумаг обрушился, разразился двухлетний банковский кризис и трехлетняя рецессия. Инфляция достигла 20%. Британия была вынуждена обратиться к МВФ за кредитом в 2.3 млрд фунтов.
- В 1977 году началась добыча нефти в Северном море, что сделало Британию нетто экспортером нефти и резко изменило ее экономическое положение. ВВП 1979 года рос на 5%. Но это же привело к резкому росту стоимости фунта, удорожанию экспорта и удешевлению импорта. Местная индустрия стала еще менее выгодной.
- В мае 1979 года к власти пришла Маргарет Тетчер с программой приватизации и сворачивания субсидий.
- Британия прошла «мини 90-е» СССР: ВВП начал с падения на 6%, инфляция в 1980 году составила 22%, безработица поднялась до 12%. На фоне рецессии и резкого подъема ставки БоЕ (до 9.5%) инфляция упала до менее 4%. При этом, количество рабочих мест в индустрии сократилось на треть, но начали быстро развиваться сервисные секторы, торговля и финансовый сектор, пользуясь быстрым экономическим ростом всего мира. Фунт с уровня выше 2 к доллару упал до уровня 1.5 к доллару (и будет там находиться до 2003 года).
- За 10 лет безработица сократилась до 7%, но «обновление экономики» не успевало за распадом индустриальной основы британского бизнеса и высокие ставки, державшие инфляцию, не способствовали росту. В начале 1990х экономика Британии ушла в рецессию (вместе с мировой, после победы Клинтона), потеряв 6% при очень низкой инфляции (рецессия спроса).
- В сентябре 1992 года Британия была вынуждена выйти из европейской валютной системы, в которую она вошла только 2 года назад, из-за падающего курса фунта. В основе проблемы была ошибка «входа» на явно завышенном уровне в 1 фунт = 1.45 евро ( 2.95 ДМ). Крупные инвесторы, включая Сороса, стали строить короткие позиции в фунте.
- В результате 1992 года влияние консерваторов пошло на убыль и в 1997 году лейбористы снова пришли к власти, несмотря на то, что экономика за период 1993 – 1997 существенно укрепилась за счет начавшегося опережающего роста финансового и R&D секторов.
- После кризиса 2008 года Британия, которая фактически свернула свою индустрию и зарабатывала продажей финансовых сервисов, оказалась с третьим по величине дефицитом в мире. В ответ БоЕ снизил ставки до 0.5% (хотя во время Второй мировой войны ставка была 2%) и начал эмиссию, сократив стоимость фунта с почти 2 к доллару до 1.5, а после Brexit 2016 года – до 1.3.
Британия стала самой закредитованной страной мира. В 2015 дефицит счета текущих операций достиг году 7% ВВП – такого не было с 1772 года (!). Всего QE составило 435 млрд фунтов.
Last updated: 13.05.2022
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